Glossary beginning with B

the glossary
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Literary technique of ornamentation by means of symbolic vocabulary and references.


The full moon. The crescent moon is referred to as hilal. The moon is a symbol of human beauty in Persian poetry, and also of the unattainable beauty of the Divine.


In Persian poetry, a unit of two rhyming half-lines of verse (hemistichs) equivalent to a couplet in the European literary tradition, and closely related to musical rhythms.


A term used by Sufi poets for the Divine as the object of spiritual love, and also for a human being who reflects divine attributes.


A preparation, usually in the form of a drink, made from cannabis; used in South Asia since at least the first millennium BC as an aid in healing and in spiritual practices.


A nightingale.